CHRONOLOGY OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA

Before the Common Era (B.C.E.)

1500-1200

India
B.C.E.
-Vedas
Southeast Asia
-Thailand: Ban Chiang Culture

800-600

India
-Upanishads

500

India
-Mahaparinirvana of the Buddha; year 1 of the Buddhist era and beginning of the historical period

400

Southeast Asia
-Bronze Age culture -Vietnam: Dongson culture (Late Bronze Age)

300

India
-Alexander the Great reaches India

200

India
-Reign of King Ashoka -Buddhist missionaries travel to nearby countries
Southeast Asia
-Beginnign of Iron Age
-First use of lacquer in Vietnam
-Vietnam: Early historical period
-First exchanges with India

100

Sri Lanka
-Building of anuradhapura -Writing of the Pali Canon
Southeast Asia
-Vietnam: Beginning of one thousand years of Chinese occupation

Common Era (C.E.)

0-100

Southeast Asia
-Beginning of Indianization; Buddhist monks in Vietnam

100-200

India
-Appearance of Greco Buddhist art of Gandhara; art style of Mathura; art style of Amaravati
Southeast Asia
-Vietnam: Han style brick tombs; earliest artifacts from Oc-eo

200-300

Southeast Asia
-Kingdom of Lin-yi which later becomes northern part of Champa kingdom -Pyu kingdom of the Irrawaddy

300-400

India
-Beginnings of the Gupta era and Gupta art style -Gandhara art flourishes
Southeast Asia
-Sanskrit inscriptions from Champa

400-500

India
-Mahayana Buddhist caves of Ajanta, Ellora -End of the Gupta dynasty
Southeast Asia
-Thailand: Influence of South Indian art

500-600

India
-Cave art of Ajanta, Ellora
Southeast Asia
-End of fu-nan kingdom
-Cambodia: Beginnings of Chen-la kingdom
-Thailand: Gupta influences in Thai sanctuaries; Khmer inscriptions in eastern provinces

600-700

India
-Reign of Mahendravarman I, Pallava dynasty of southeast India.
-Pallava art style.
Southeast Asia
-Champa: Mi-Son site established
-Java: Beginning of the Shrivijaya kingdom
-Thailand: Rise of the Dvaravati school of art; Pre-Angkorian art in the eastern provinces of modern Thailand; Buddhist incriptions; founding of Haripunjaya kingdom

700-800

India
-Pala dynasty in Bengal and Bihar
-Rise of Mahayana and Tantric Buddhism
Southeast Asia
-Indonesian raids in the Indochina peninsula
-Java: Sailendra dynasty established
-Thailand: Shrivijaya kingdom rules in the peninsula

800-900

India
-Chola art
Southeast Asia
-Cambodia: Reign of Jayavarman II; reign of Indravarman temples founded at Roluos, Prah Ko, Bakong; founding of Angkor
-Burma: founding of Pegu
-Champa: Buddhist temple of Dong-duong established
-Thailand: Mahayana school of Buddhism dominates Shrivijaya Pallava influences in Peninsula art

900-1000

India
-Khajuraho
Southeast Asia
-Cambodia: Reign of Jayavarman IV; new capital at Koh Ker
-Vietnam: Independence from China
-Champa: Invaded by Vietnam 1000-1100 India
-Sacking of Buddhist temples of mathura

1200-1300

India
-Muslim art in Delhi
Southeast Asia
-Champa: Annexed by Cambodia
-Vietnam: Tran dynasty
-Burma: Pagan defeated by Mongols
-Thailand: Founding of Sukhothai kingdom; independence of Lopburi; decline of Shrivijaya in penisula; founding of chiang Mai as capital of Lan Na kingdom; sculptures in U Thong art style; Lan Na art style

1300-1400

India
-Founding of Vijayanagar
Southeast Asia
-Vietnam: Conquers Champa Peninsula: Spread of Islam
-Laos: Founding of kingdom of Lan Chang
-Burma: Founding of Ava
-Thailand: Ayutthaya kingdom; Sukhothai school of art flourishes; Sawankalok ceramics; Lan Na kingdom
-Champa: Campaigns against Vietnam

1400-1500

India
-Development of Muslim architecture
Southeast Asia
-Cambodia: Angkor defeated by Ayutthhaya; capital moves to Phnom Phen -Thailand: Sukhothai subjected by Ayutthaya

1500-1600

India
-Beginning of Mughal empire and architecture; fall of Vijayanagar empire
Southeast Asia
-Burma: Pegu annexed by Taungu dynasty
-Laos: Capital moved from Luang Prabang to Vientiane

1600-1700

India
-Reign of Shah Jahan -Bombay ceded to England
Southeast Asia
-Vietnam: Divided into two kingdoms under Trinh (north) and Nguyen (south)
-Thailand: Burmese conquer Chiang Mai; Ayutthaya establishes relations with Europe and Japan
-Burma: Ava is capital -Vietnam: Hue is capital

1700-1800

India
-End of Mughal power
Southeast Asia
-Laos: Divided into 3 kingdoms
-Cambodia: Loses southern provinces to Nguyen dynasty of Vietnam
-Burma: Founding of Rangoon -Laos: Vientiane taken by Chao Phraya Chakri of Thailand
-Vietnam: Treaty between France and Nguyen dynasty of the south
-Thailand: Ayuttaha sacked by Burma: Chakri dynasty established in Bangkok; Wat Phra kaeo containing the Emerald Buddha was built

1800-1900

Southeast Asia
-Burma: First Anglo-Burmese war; Ava destroyed by earthquake; founding of Mandalay
-Thailand: commercial treaty with East India Company and U.S.; reign of King Rama V, King Chulalongkorn

from Dictionary of South & Southeast Asian Art Gwyneth Chaturachinda Silkworm books Bangkok, 1995

 

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