The meaning of Bai raka Ban Chiang Banteay Bas-relef Bat Bayon B.E. Bhikku Bhikkuni Budhi tree Borobudur Brahman Brahmanism Buddhapada Buddhist Lent


Bai raka
An ornamental crest running along the barge boards on the gable ends of a roof.

Ban Chiang
The prehistoric civilization in Northeast Thailand with artifacts revealing a metal culture, dating from between 3600 and 2500 B.C.E., and extensive pottery production, including funerary vessels with distinctive lineal designs painted red-on-buff.


Citadel. A khmer temple with an important enclosing wall.

Sculpture in low relief, with t he figures projecting only slightly from the background.

A maonk's alms bowl.

Khmer temple built by King Jayavarman VII in the city of Angkor Thom. Also applies to the Khmer school of art from the late 12th to the early 13th centuries C.E.

Buddhist Era. The Theravada tradition claims that the Buddha's parinirvana occurred in the year 544 B.C.E., marking the beginning of the Buddhist era in Burma, Sri Lanka, and India. In Thailand, Laos and Combodia the era begins on the first anniversary of that event, in 543 B.C.E. Thus, for example, a Thai B.E. date may be converted to C.E. by subtracting 543.

An ordained Buddhist monk; a religious mendicant.

Feminine form of bhikku; a Buddhist nun. Although Theravada Buddhism originally provided for an order of nuns, it was discontinued centuries ago. The white-robed women with shaved heads seen in Thai monasteries are lay persons without official status who live according to Buddhist precepts. Also called mae chi in Thailand.

Budhi tree
The sacred fig tree in Bodh Gaya under which the Buddha attained bodhi or enlightenment. After the original tree was cut in 600 C.E., cuttings were replanted wherever Theravada Buddhism was introduced and practiced.

Great Buddhist monument built in Java by the Sailendra kings between 778 and 824 C.E. A nine-tiered mountain-like structure, it rises to a height of 34.5m. it is decorated with five kilometers of relief, ornamented with five hundred Buddha images, and constructed of more than one million andesite stones, or volcanic rock, mined from riverbeds. Symbolically Borobudur is at the same time a stupa, a peplica of the cosmic mountain Mt. Meru, and a mandala.

The universal world spirit which is all pervading, absolute, and eternal in Hindu philosophy. It is the source of all creation, animate and inanimate. It is also the highest social category in the Hindu caste system, and the only castes from which a priest can come.

An early form of Hinduism during the Vedic period in India. The religion was brought to India by the Aryans during the second millenium B.C.E.

Footprint of the Buddha.


Buddhist Lent
The three-month period during the rainy season when monks retreat to the monasteries to study and refrain from traveling.

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